Under the term « Middle-Persian » in the wider meaning of the word is understood the language of Iran in the time of the Arsacids (Parthians) and Sasanids (226-642 A.D.). We do not possess any written remnants of the older period except a few titles and names of persons; inscriptions on monuments and legends on coins, gems and vessels of the Sasanian period only have reached us, decipherment of which, up to the present has not been fully successful. The same holds good with reference to fragments of papyri recently discovered in large quantities in Egypt and brought to Europe; these seem to be post-Sasanian and to belong to the VIII century of the Christian era or thereabouts. The language of all these monuments is essentially identical with the language of the rich literature which, according to trustworthy sources, was flourishing during the national reign of the Sasanian dynasty and which continued in Persia and in India after the fall of the same amongst Zoroastrians (Parsis) who remained true to the old religion. Taking into consideration the multiformity of this literature, as related by our –partly Arabian – sources, it is very unfortunate, that only an insignificant of the same, mostly works of theological contents, have been preserved; moreover, none of the known manuscripts is older than the beginning of the XIV century. Now, the language of these writings is the “Middle-Persian” in a more restricted sense, also called “Book-Pahlavi”, in antithesis to the older Pahlavi of the other monuments. Carl Salemann, A Middle-Persian Grammar, (“Mittelpersisch” in Grundriß der iranischen Philologie, 1895-1901, I.1, 249-332, Einleitung, 249).